English for Pharmacists > Basic Level > Vocabulary > Biochemistry

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Spanish English Definition
Ácido graso

Fatty acid
X

A long-chain hydrocarbon containing a carboxyl group at one end.
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Aminoácido

Amino acid
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Any one of several organic compound containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group on adjacent carbon atoms, that link together by peptide bonds to form proteins.
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Anabolismo

Anabolism
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The conversion of simple substances into more complex substances by living cells. Refers to those metabolic processes involved in the synthesis of cell constituents from simpler molecules.
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Catabolismo

Catabolism
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The conversion of complex substances into more simple compounds by living cells, usually leading to the production of energy.
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Deficiencia

Deficiency
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A lack or shortage, especially of something essential to health.
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Enzima

Enzyme
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Any of numerous proteins that are produced by living cells and used to catalyse specific biochemical reactions at body temperature.
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Glucosa

Glucose
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A hexose monosaccharide obtained upon the hydrolysis of starch and certain other carbohydrates. Also called dextrose.
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Lípido

Lipid
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A natural substance that is poorly soluble in water but is soluble in organic solvents; lipids include fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, waxes and some hormones and vitamins.
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Metabolismo

Metabolism
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The whole range of biochemical processes that occur within a living organism. Metabolism consists of anabolism and catabolism.
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Nucleósido

Nucleoside
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A purine or pyrimidine base bounded to a sugar.
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Nucleótido

Nucleotide
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A purine or pyrimidine base bounded to a sugar and a phosphate ester. Unit from which nucleic acids are constructed by polymerization.
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Péptido

Peptide
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Biologically important polymers, in which amino acids are joined into chains through peptide (amide) bonds. By convention, shorter than 50 amino acids.
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Proteína

Protein
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Any one of many complex organic nitrogenous compounds formed from various combinations of different amino acids.
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Residuo

Residue
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A constituent structural unit (as a group or monomer) of a usually complex molecule. The part of a single sugar that appears in a polysaccharide; of a single amino acid in a protein; of a single nucleotide in a nucleic acid.
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Ribosoma

Ribosome
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A complex of RNA molecules and proteins that is a site of protein synthesis in eukaryotes.
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Ruta metabólica

Metabolic pathway
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The sequence of usually enzyme-catalysed reactions by which one substance is converted into another.
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Sustrato

Substrate
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A reactant in an enzymatic reaction.
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Traducción

Translation
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The process of forming a protein molecule at a ribosomal site of protein synthesis from information contained in messenger RNA.
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Transcripción

Transcription
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The process of constructing a messenger RNA molecule using a DNA molecule as a template.
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Triglicérido

Triglyceride
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The major form of fat stored by the body. A triglyceride consists of three molecules of fatty acid combined with a molecule of the alcohol glycerol.
X

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