English for Pharmacists > Basic Level > Vocabulary > Physiology

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Spanish English Definition
Arteria

Artery
X

A relatively thick-walled, muscular, pulsating blood vessel conveying blood away from the heart to all parts of the body.
X

Bomba

Pump
X

An energy-dependent mechanism by which a metabolite or ion is forced across a membrane against a concentration gradient.
X

Célula

Cell
X

The smallest structural unit of living organisms that is able to grow and reproduce independently.
X

Digestión

Digestion
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The enzymatic hydrolysis of major nutrients in the gastrointestinal system to yield their building-block components.
X

Eritrocito

Erythrocyte
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A mature red blood cell.
X

Glándula

Gland
X

An organ that produces and secretes a chemical substance in the body.
X

Heces

Faeces
X

The excreta discharged from the digestive tract through the anus; excrement.
X

Hormona

Hormone
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A chemical substance produced and secreted by endocrine glands, that travels through the bloodstream, and controls or regulates the activity of another organ or group of cells, its target organ.
X

Leucocito

Leukocyte
X

Any of the blood cells that are colourless, lack haemoglobin, contain a nucleus, and include the lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils; white blood cell.
X

Membrana

Membrane
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A sheet-like composite of protein and lipid that is the boundary of cells and organelles.
X

Músculo

Muscle
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A tissue composed of fibres capable of contracting to effect bodily movement.
X

Nefrona

Nephron
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A single excretory unit of the kidney, typically consisting of the renal corpuscle, the proximal tubule, the loop of Henle, and the distal tubule.
X

Neurona

Neuron
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The morphologic and functional unit of the nervous system, consisting of the nerve cell body, the dendrites, and the axon.
X

Neurotransmisor

Neurotransmitter
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Any specific chemical agent released by a presynaptic cell, on excitation, that crosses the synapse to stimulate or inhibit the postsynaptic cell.
X

Organismo

Organism
X

An individual constituted to carry on the activities of life by means of organs separate in function but mutually dependent; a living being.
X

Órgano

Organ
X

A differentiated part of an organism that performs a specific function.
X

Orina

Urine
X

The fluid and dissolved substances excreted by the kidney.
X

Plaqueta

Platelet
X

A minute colourless anucleate disklike body of mammalian blood, that assists in blood clotting by adhering to other platelets and to damaged epithelium; thrombocyte.
X

Plasma

Plasma
X

The fluid (noncellular) portion of whole blood, that consists of water and its dissolved constituents, including proteins (as albumin, fibrinogen, and globulins), electrolytes (as sodium and chloride), sugars (as glucose), lipids (as cholesterol and triglycerides), metabolic waste products (as urea), amino acids, hormones, and vitamins.
X

Sangre

Blood
X

The fluid that circulates in the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins of a vertebrate animal, carrying nourishment and oxygen to and bringing away waste products from all parts of the body.
X

Sentido

Sense
X

One of the five faculties by which a person notices things in the outside world: sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch.
X

Tejido

Tissue
X

A group of cells, of one or several types, that serve a specific function in the body.
X

Torrente sanguíneo

Bloodstream
X

The flow of blood through the circulatory system of an organism.
X

Vena

Vein
X

Any of the tubes forming part of the blood circulation system of the body, carrying mainly oxygen-depleted blood towards the heart.
X

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